The Mayan Ruins of Tikal

Hundreds of years ago a booming civilization fought its way to become a major empire with massive architectural achievements, sprawling cities, and a stunning system of roadways hacked through the lush jungle underbrush.  Each one of these accomplishments would be impressive, even by today’s technological standards and yet all of them combined and carried out over a thousand years ago? Truly spectacular!

Like any good adventure, my exploration of Tikal started curled up in my top bunk bed at Los Amigos Hostel in Flores, Guatemala. While the more hardy (morning people) had opted for the 5 O’clock bus to Tikal, I’d debated it…considered the rainy weather we’d been having and instead opted for the 6:45 bus.   While not terribly early, for a late riser like myself it presented a small challenge: The two items I’d completely forgotten to pack were a watch and an alarm clock. The good news was that about half way through the trip I realized that if I set my camera time correctly, that I could use the internal clock on my camera as a watch – I’m not sure why/how but this seemed like a better option than locating a cheap $10 watch somewhere. While somewhat awkward this solved one of my two problems – but still left me relying on my internal clock in place of an automatic alarm. Whoops!

Flores near Sunrise

Driven in part by anxiety I was up and ready to go by 6:15, which left me with plenty of time to wander around the hostel before finding my way down to the lake shore.  The view that awaited was delightful.  Though a bit after sunrise the water was smooth, the light soft and the clouds misty.  I quickly tracked down the spot where I’d been informed my tourist colectivo (not to be confused with the authentic styled colectivo I wrote about previously) would pick me up and take me the 45 minute drive to Tikal.  The drive itself was enjoyable despite a light rain.

By the time we arrived at the main complex and began to exit the bus, the rain had stopped – which given my lack of an umbrella was probably a lucky stroke. While most of the others wandered off to find coffee or breakfast, I set off straight for the park.  After purchasing a surprisingly expensive ticket (I believe it was about 150 GTQ or $20 USD) I began my extensive exploration of the park.  The park itself is massive and could easily take an entire day to explore.  The distances between major ruins is surprising, the winding paths through the jungles confusing, and the lush underbrush exciting.

Tikal’s history is fascinating.  The earliest parts of the city are said to be more than 4,000 years old, while the majority of the city was built and occupied within the last 3,000 years – predominantly between 600BC and 900AD.  Despite evidence that Tikal was conquered by Teotihuacan (located in modern day Mexico), the city served as a major military, economic and governmental power for the majority of its existence.  It is believed that at its peak, the city and surrounding area may have been home to at least 120,000 people, with potentially as many as 400,000+ in the surrounding 20 mile area.

Map of Tikal

My first stop was at the initial fork in the road.  There I was greeted by three paths – one to the left, right and one straight ahead.  Located directly to the left of the central path was a large map of the entire complex (click it to enlarge).  Eager to save a few dollars – I’d opted out of buying a map.  Instead I took a digital photo of the map, which I would later refer back to as I wandered through the complex.

As a quick aside: The more I travel the more heavily I rely on my camera as a note taking device.  My main uses include photos of maps and photos of pages in guide books, but as mentioned earlier, I’ve even used it as a watch. The potential is nearly limitless.  It’s a great way to store information and keep it readily (and easily) accessible.

Plant life in Tikal

Eager to stay as far away from the crowds as possible, I opted to go left and work my way clockwise around the ruin complex.  This path took me through a long stretch of mostly untouched jungle where I was kept company by the natural sounds of the jungle, odd looking wild plants and a number of bored spider monkeys.

Jungle Roots in Guatemala

Luckily, I’d arrived early enough that I’d beat most of the crowds.  As a result I didn’t run into another human being until some 50 minutes in.  The opportunity to walk in the footsteps of the ancient Mayans, isolated in the jungle was an energizing and slightly mystical experience.

Ruins of Tikal - Guatemala

Eventually, just as I’d begun to wonder if I had taken a wrong turn I came upon Temple VI.  A medium sized pyramid, heavily covered in moss and light vegetation.   It was the first real Mayan pyramid I’d seen since my exploration of Tulum in Mexico two weeks earlier. My limited frame of reference allowed me to appreciate its size, scope and beauty – all of which was impressive, but would later seem modest in comparison to the ruin’s other structures.

White Leaf in the Ruins of Tikal Guatemala

Eager to see more I struck back east towards the Palacio de las Acanaladuras.  A low, sprawling structure – perhaps some two stories in height, it had winding hallways that cut through the tick walls, small three sides rooms, a central common area in the middle, and what appeared to be an amphitheater like area carved into the side of the hill. The Mayan architecture itself is somewhat difficult to describe.  There are parts of it that have a natural elegance, but the general feeling I got from it was one of….solidity. The buildings, due to the way they’ve been built both look and generate a feeling of density and permanence.  Not all that unlike the feeling one might get when looking at a mountain.  It’s there, it’s been there and heaven help the person or natural elements that try to move it.

Ruins of Tikal - Guatemala

My next stop was at Temple V. Hands down the most impressive of the Pyramids and Ruins in the Tikal Complex.  Temple V is a stunning 187 feet and stands as the second tallest in the complex behind only Temple IV at 230 feet.  Unfortunately, due to the weather I didn’t make it to Temple IV – though I was able to see it in its complete splendor from the top of Temple V.

Ruins of Tikal - Guatemala

Though they’ve blocked the use of the stone stairway on Temple V, they’ve installed an incredibly steep – nearly vertical – 150+ foot staircase to the viewing platform near the top of Temple V.  For those intrepid souls willing to trust their luck on the wet wood and narrow steps, it’s a heart pounding, leg burning climb to the top.  Once there, however, the views are spectacular.

View of the Guatemalan Jungle from Pyramid V

The cloudy weather, accompanied by the briefest of light rains ended up being a wonderful boon.  Once moving it lowered the temperature to near t-shirt weather, while the humidity in the air added a crisp freshness and the periodic light rain brought out all of the rich greens, browns and yellows in the foliage.

Ruins of Tikal - Guatemala

Blown away by the incredible beauty of the wild jungle as it swept away into the distance before fading gently into the mists, I paused on top of Tempe V to enjoy the moment, let the entirety of the experience soak into my core, and to reflect on the wonderful opportunity I was experiencing.

Ruins of Tikal - Guatemala

The platform at the top of Pyramid V is an interesting experience.  The very front has been completely restored and ranges between 2ft-5ft wide.  The challenge of course comes in the narrower sections when trying to pass other tourists.  At 170 feet up, without any safety rails or ropes – it’s definitely a “watch your step” moment.  For those feeling a little gutsy, it’s possible to wrap around to the side of the pyramid (pictured earlier).  There the ledge quickly fades into crumbling rock and steep drop as it transitions from the restored half of the pyramid, to the back two sides which are still crumbling and inaccessible.

The vista itself was spectacular.  Clean Air.  A crisp freshness to the slight breeze.  The gentle kiss of humidity. Sprawling jungle in every direction.  A powerful sensation: Life.

Ruins of Tikal - Guatemala

After a long stay on top of Pyramid V I eventually gathered my thoughts and set off to see what other wonders Tikal held.  The trip back down the stairs was hair raising. The age old question quickly presented itself – is it better to go forward or backward?  I opted for a mixture of the two, trying to pace myself and forcing a pause at each of the platforms to stop, look out, and wait for the person below.

Ruins of Tikal - Guatemala

My path led me up past Mundo Perdido and a large series of medium sized structures to a partially restored, mid-sized, pyramid which I was able to climb before wrapping back to the south towards the central Acropolis.

Ruins of Tikal - Guatemala

The Central Acropolis is a sprawling series of ruins which are home to a large raised structure as well as two large pyramids sitting at opposite ends of a courtyard which delivers stunning acoustics.  One of the two has a large ledge about halfway up which has been stabilized to serve as a viewing platform.  The other remains unscalable. The scope of the Central Acropolis is spectacular and truly a tribute to what must have been an incredibly powerful, economically successful and technologically advanced civilization.

Ruins of Tikal - Guatemala

The ruins are famous for the wildlife, particularly the howler monkeys which seem to have a fondness for the ancient stone buildings and their acoustics.  Unfortunately, due to weather and timing I missed both the Howler Monkeys and the Wild Toucans.  I did, however, have the opportunity to see wild Spider Monkeys, Coatis (a weird type of long nosed raccoon), Leaf Cutter ants and vibrantly colored wild Turkeys.

Ruins of Tikal - Turkey

Why mention wild turkeys?  If you’re like me, you probably typically think of turkeys as rather unimpressive, with subdued, lack-luster coloring.  Definitely not the case in Tikal.  In many ways they reminded me of a Central American version of the pheasants common in many European castles and palaces.  Their coloring was fantastic and even their heads and skin had an exotic blue/orange coloration. Looking back through my photos, I think I ended up with nearly as many shots of the turkeys as I did of the Central Acropolis, though as fascinating as the turkeys were – the Acropolis was far more impressive.

Ruins of Tikal - Guatemala

With stiff legs and a growling stomach I made my way back towards the entrance. Pausing briefly to take in one last view of the ancient pyramids before walking the half mile or so back to the car park, where I caught one of the noon buses back through the rain to Flores.

Tikal was easily one of the most incredible things I’ve ever experienced.  The scale, the scope, the technology and the terrain all combine to create a magical experience.  One I highly recommend to anyone planning on exploring Central America.

Comments or questions?  Don’t hesitate to post them here! As always, thanks for reading!

Are Virtual Worlds The Harbingers of The End of Society?

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Audio: Are virtual worlds the harbingers of the end of society?

When people discuss the future of online communities and virtual environments it’s the question that nags at the back of everyone’s mind.  Even among virtual world evangelists it’s a topic of concern, apprehension and uncertainty.  A concept and concern so powerful that mega hits like the Matrix have been based on it.

The question begs – are virtual worlds the harbingers of the end of society? Will, as most people fear the eventual march of technology result in environments so immersive, so powerful, and so socially disconnected that our species loses its ability and desire to interact, reproduce and perpetuate itself?  Will virtual worlds and their progeny result in the eventual death of civilization? Experience tells me that most people believe it will.

I disagree.

In fact, not only do I disagree, but I’m not worried in the least. The forward march of technology is an interesting dilemma.  Especially since, with each new invention things previously unimaginable become a reality opening the gateway to future inventions and technology so far beyond the scope of our current understanding that they are, by today’s standards, unfathomable. The side effect of this forward moving evolution is change.  Sometimes a change so fundamental, it re-shapes our very lives. Fire. The wheel. The written word.  Change can make the topic a very difficult one to explore, after all – change is scary or at the very least something that requires a transition period before it becomes comfortable. So, where is the fine line between what we’re afraid of because it’s new or different, and what we’re afraid of because it’s detrimental?

I believe the answer lies in our core nature as a species.  We are, fundamentally, social creatures.  We reach out, build communities, and seek out companionship.  We are not a-sexual and as such by our very biological makeup are hardwired to seek companionship.  Community is at the core of who we are, and our success as a species.  It powers our communities, which have enabled us to overcome great obstacles, eventually becoming the dominant form of life on earth.  It’s for that very reason that the thought of technology breaking down those social bonds is so alarming.  It’s also for that very reason that I’m not concerned. Humans – as a species – will always seek out other humans. In fact, the lengths we will go to are spectacular.  A point I am continually reminded of when I look at gamers behavior.

A few years ago when I was spending a lot of my time playing Everquest and other online games,,, I was constantly amazed at the lengths guild/group members would go to in order to meet each other in person.  It’s not uncommon for gaming guilds to hold meet-ups and while the lions share are more regionally oriented many are international in scope with members from all over the country (and world) flying in for small & medium sized face-to-face gatherings. There’s an important lesson here – even in one of the web’s most immersive environments people still reach out to each other.  Another example of the power of community presence is LAN parties where groups of 3 or more gather in one location and all play/chat/etc. for hours and in some cases days. At these events it’s not uncommon to have X people in a room silently focused on their screens for surprisingly long blocks of time without verbal interactions.  Despite their apparent lack of social interaction, they are using Skype-like technology to communicate with each other and others throughout the world, chatting constantly, and interacting in a rich world with their avatars.  So, why gather at all?  The comradship of being together.  The power and appeal of being in the presence of other humans and enjoying the face-to-face socialization that happens during downtime.  Again, these behaviors make it clear that as a species we thrive on, and hunger for, social interaction.  We are social creatures.

Confident in our social nature, I’m not concerned about the growing influence of technology because fundamentally we will always reach out to connect physically.  The dynamics may change, but the physical presence of someone, especially a romantic partner, is an experience that technology can’t duplicate.  In cases where it comes close it may temporarily satiate our needs, but ultimately even in these instances real world social interaction will always win out.  That’s why – to me – the fears about virtual world technology are a non-issue.

So, what happens if technology does move to the point where it can imitate and replace social interactions and the benefits of face-to-face interactions? That is the imagined matrix paradigm, a virtual reality so complete, real, and believable that you can’t tell the difference between it and the real world.  If, or rather when, technology evolves to the point where it is able to flawlessly imitate the real world, where does that leave us? Staunchly embedded and fiercely loyal to the world we know. It’s a scary thought, but realistically would that world be any less real, albeit different, than what we now classify as the “real world”?  Would it truly be a bad thing if it satiated all of our needs and fulfilled us every bit as completely as the “real world”? I don’t believe it would be bad.  In fact, at that point I believe it becomes every bit as real, valid and perhaps even essential as what we take for granted today.

So, are virtual worlds the harbingers of the end? If you believe that humans are fundamentally social animals and that we need that social interaction to survive, then your answer should be a confident no.  If, on the other hand, you do not believe that we are fundamentally social – what are you concerned about to begin with?

As always I value your feedback, thoughts and discussion.  Please take advantage of the comment feature below and share your thoughts!