In 2016 I catapulted across the 50 country mark with visits to several destinations that have captivated my imagination since I was a kid, but long sat neglected on my bucket list. The trips also included several very welcome surprises which reminded me that the more I travel the larger the world becomes and the more there is to explore and discover.
It has also been a year marked by exciting new achievements and significant growth in my photography, videography and photo editing understanding. Perhaps the most interesting pivot has been experimenting with back button focus, which is fundamentally changed the way I shoot.
I’ve also started to experiment more with filters (if on a limited level) and actively pivoted from shooting predominantly using aperture priority, to a shutter speed priority first approach which also uses 2-3x the speed the camera suggested via Av. For my Tanzania Safari, I also began to experiment more with a full-manual approach where and when I needed the speed, but also wanted to ensure a higher aperture.
This post is part of an annual tradition where I post my 65 favorite black and white photos from 2016 and my 65 favorite color shots. For previous years, check out 2012, 2013, 2014 and 2015 and of course, don’t miss the color post from 2016. As with last year, the photos from my end of the year trip fall on the following year. This means the 4,000 Tanzania shots from December 2016 will appear in my 2017 post and that in this post, you’ll find all of the shots from my 2015 December trip to Cambodia, Thailand and Vietnam.
Questions about how I composed or took a specific photo? Feel free to ask in a comment. You’re also encouraged to check out my complete flickr albums here.
**Sadly, due to recent events, I’m adding this note and suspending the series before completing Part III. In October and November 2016, an increase in violence in the northern regions has led to a number of village burnings and significant loss of life. As a result, I encourage anyone considering a visit to research events and the current status before making any decisions. For the time being, it looks like many of the recent gains made are being eroded.**
Welcome to Part II of my three part series exploring Myanmar. When we decided to visit Myanmar, we wanted to explore a country we knew very little about. You can read up on all of the misconceptions we had before going in this post. Just joining? Jump back to Part I here.
Myanmar (formerly Burma), is a wonderful country that recently started to open up again to travel. To recap my previous post, it’s; 1) safe 2) easy to get around 3 ) easy to access 4) still very affordable and, 5) already has a comfortable tourist infrastructure. For some familiar with the earthquake in August 2016, the majority of the damage was to repairs that had been made during a controversial series of repairs 10-20 years ago. In essence, it wiped the slate clean. Everything I’ve seen and read says that most of the temples and pagodas impacted are being repaired rapidly and will re-open soon, if they have not already done so.
It’s also worth noting that the famous balloons over Bagan only fly seasonally. So, if you go in July like we did, you will not see them. They’re also extremely expensive. Lastly, we didn’t fly, but apparently most of the material about the internal airlines being extremely unsafe is 2+ years out of date with the Government overhauling things and replacing aged aircraft with new ones.
Crashed airplanes and aviation accidents. They’re something we all hate to see, but at the see time also find deeply fascinating. They toy with our fears and with the small part of our reptilian brain that still can’t accept that mankind has managed to depart our terrestrial existence. They are also often an even bigger and more extreme version of the old cars we periodically find and photograph – entranced by how such resilient and seemingly permanent creations can so quickly be reclaimed by nature.…
Hundreds of years ago a booming civilization fought its way to become a major empire with massive architectural achievements, sprawling cities, and a stunning system of roadways hacked through the lush jungle underbrush. Each one of these accomplishments would be impressive, even by today’s technological standards and yet all of them combined and carried out over a thousand years ago? Truly spectacular!
Like any good adventure, my exploration of Tikal started curled up in my top bunk bed at Los Amigos Hostel in Flores, Guatemala. While the more hardy (morning people) had opted for the 5 O’clock bus to Tikal, I’d debated it…considered the rainy weather we’d been having and instead opted for the 6:45 bus. While not terribly early, for a late riser like myself it presented a small challenge: The two items I’d completely forgotten to pack were a watch and an alarm clock. The good news was that about half way through the trip I realized that if I set my camera time correctly, that I could use the internal clock on my camera as a watch – I’m not sure why/how but this seemed like a better option than locating a cheap $10 watch somewhere. While somewhat awkward this solved one of my two problems – but still left me relying on my internal clock in place of an automatic alarm. Whoops!
Driven in part by anxiety I was up and ready to go by 6:15, which left me with plenty of time to wander around the hostel before finding my way down to the lake shore. The view that awaited was delightful. Though a bit after sunrise the water was smooth, the light soft and the clouds misty. I quickly tracked down the spot where I’d been informed my tourist colectivo (not to be confused with the authentic styled colectivo I wrote about previously) would pick me up and take me the 45 minute drive to Tikal. The drive itself was enjoyable despite a light rain.
By the time we arrived at the main complex and began to exit the bus, the rain had stopped – which given my lack of an umbrella was probably a lucky stroke. While most of the others wandered off to find coffee or breakfast, I set off straight for the park. After purchasing a surprisingly expensive ticket (I believe it was about 150 GTQ or $20 USD) I began my extensive exploration of the park. The park itself is massive and could easily take an entire day to explore. The distances between major ruins is surprising, the winding paths through the jungles confusing, and the lush underbrush exciting.
Tikal’s history is fascinating. The earliest parts of the city are said to be more than 4,000 years old, while the majority of the city was built and occupied within the last 3,000 years – predominantly between 600BC and 900AD. Despite evidence that Tikal was conquered by Teotihuacan (located in modern day Mexico), the city served as a major military, economic and governmental power for the majority of its existence. It is believed that at its peak, the city and surrounding area may have been home to at least 120,000 people, with potentially as many as 400,000+ in the surrounding 20 mile area.
My first stop was at the initial fork in the road. There I was greeted by three paths – one to the left, right and one straight ahead. Located directly to the left of the central path was a large map of the entire complex (click it to enlarge). Eager to save a few dollars – I’d opted out of buying a map. Instead I took a digital photo of the map, which I would later refer back to as I wandered through the complex.
As a quick aside: The more I travel the more heavily I rely on my camera as a note taking device. My main uses include photos of maps and photos of pages in guide books, but as mentioned earlier, I’ve even used it as a watch. The potential is nearly limitless. It’s a great way to store information and keep it readily (and easily) accessible.
Eager to stay as far away from the crowds as possible, I opted to go left and work my way clockwise around the ruin complex. This path took me through a long stretch of mostly untouched jungle where I was kept company by the natural sounds of the jungle, odd looking wild plants and a number of bored spider monkeys.
Luckily, I’d arrived early enough that I’d beat most of the crowds. As a result I didn’t run into another human being until some 50 minutes in. The opportunity to walk in the footsteps of the ancient Mayans, isolated in the jungle was an energizing and slightly mystical experience.
Eventually, just as I’d begun to wonder if I had taken a wrong turn I came upon Temple VI. A medium sized pyramid, heavily covered in moss and light vegetation. It was the first real Mayan pyramid I’d seen since my exploration of Tulum in Mexico two weeks earlier. My limited frame of reference allowed me to appreciate its size, scope and beauty – all of which was impressive, but would later seem modest in comparison to the ruin’s other structures.
Eager to see more I struck back east towards the Palacio de las Acanaladuras. A low, sprawling structure – perhaps some two stories in height, it had winding hallways that cut through the tick walls, small three sides rooms, a central common area in the middle, and what appeared to be an amphitheater like area carved into the side of the hill. The Mayan architecture itself is somewhat difficult to describe. There are parts of it that have a natural elegance, but the general feeling I got from it was one of….solidity. The buildings, due to the way they’ve been built both look and generate a feeling of density and permanence. Not all that unlike the feeling one might get when looking at a mountain. It’s there, it’s been there and heaven help the person or natural elements that try to move it.
My next stop was at Temple V. Hands down the most impressive of the Pyramids and Ruins in the Tikal Complex. Temple V is a stunning 187 feet and stands as the second tallest in the complex behind only Temple IV at 230 feet. Unfortunately, due to the weather I didn’t make it to Temple IV – though I was able to see it in its complete splendor from the top of Temple V.
Though they’ve blocked the use of the stone stairway on Temple V, they’ve installed an incredibly steep – nearly vertical – 150+ foot staircase to the viewing platform near the top of Temple V. For those intrepid souls willing to trust their luck on the wet wood and narrow steps, it’s a heart pounding, leg burning climb to the top. Once there, however, the views are spectacular.
The cloudy weather, accompanied by the briefest of light rains ended up being a wonderful boon. Once moving it lowered the temperature to near t-shirt weather, while the humidity in the air added a crisp freshness and the periodic light rain brought out all of the rich greens, browns and yellows in the foliage.
Blown away by the incredible beauty of the wild jungle as it swept away into the distance before fading gently into the mists, I paused on top of Tempe V to enjoy the moment, let the entirety of the experience soak into my core, and to reflect on the wonderful opportunity I was experiencing.
The platform at the top of Pyramid V is an interesting experience. The very front has been completely restored and ranges between 2ft-5ft wide. The challenge of course comes in the narrower sections when trying to pass other tourists. At 170 feet up, without any safety rails or ropes – it’s definitely a “watch your step” moment. For those feeling a little gutsy, it’s possible to wrap around to the side of the pyramid (pictured earlier). There the ledge quickly fades into crumbling rock and steep drop as it transitions from the restored half of the pyramid, to the back two sides which are still crumbling and inaccessible.
The vista itself was spectacular. Clean Air. A crisp freshness to the slight breeze. The gentle kiss of humidity. Sprawling jungle in every direction. A powerful sensation: Life.
After a long stay on top of Pyramid V I eventually gathered my thoughts and set off to see what other wonders Tikal held. The trip back down the stairs was hair raising. The age old question quickly presented itself – is it better to go forward or backward? I opted for a mixture of the two, trying to pace myself and forcing a pause at each of the platforms to stop, look out, and wait for the person below.
My path led me up past Mundo Perdido and a large series of medium sized structures to a partially restored, mid-sized, pyramid which I was able to climb before wrapping back to the south towards the central Acropolis.
The Central Acropolis is a sprawling series of ruins which are home to a large raised structure as well as two large pyramids sitting at opposite ends of a courtyard which delivers stunning acoustics. One of the two has a large ledge about halfway up which has been stabilized to serve as a viewing platform. The other remains unscalable. The scope of the Central Acropolis is spectacular and truly a tribute to what must have been an incredibly powerful, economically successful and technologically advanced civilization.
The ruins are famous for the wildlife, particularly the howler monkeys which seem to have a fondness for the ancient stone buildings and their acoustics. Unfortunately, due to weather and timing I missed both the Howler Monkeys and the Wild Toucans. I did, however, have the opportunity to see wild Spider Monkeys, Coatis (a weird type of long nosed raccoon), Leaf Cutter ants and vibrantly colored wild Turkeys.
Why mention wild turkeys? If you’re like me, you probably typically think of turkeys as rather unimpressive, with subdued, lack-luster coloring. Definitely not the case in Tikal. In many ways they reminded me of a Central American version of the pheasants common in many European castles and palaces. Their coloring was fantastic and even their heads and skin had an exotic blue/orange coloration. Looking back through my photos, I think I ended up with nearly as many shots of the turkeys as I did of the Central Acropolis, though as fascinating as the turkeys were – the Acropolis was far more impressive.
With stiff legs and a growling stomach I made my way back towards the entrance. Pausing briefly to take in one last view of the ancient pyramids before walking the half mile or so back to the car park, where I caught one of the noon buses back through the rain to Flores.
Tikal was easily one of the most incredible things I’ve ever experienced. The scale, the scope, the technology and the terrain all combine to create a magical experience. One I highly recommend to anyone planning on exploring Central America.
Comments or questions? Don’t hesitate to post them here! As always, thanks for reading!
**This is the 2nd part of a two-part series covering the Actun Tunichil Munkal Cave tour. Don’t miss part one [here]***
Actun Tunichil Muknal
I hate to see things like that happen, but was immensely relieved – as it meant that after an incredibly rough start, the trip was finally getting on track and shaping up to be what I’d paid for. Our group of 8 set off towards the cave mouth in the lead, pausing briefly to snap pictures and take in the site’s incredible beauty. The milky blue-green water, moss-covered rocks, and lush jungle served as an incredible backdrop for a somewhat intimidating start to our cave voyage.
We received a brief safety lecture, a quick warning not to get our headlamps wet, and a reminder that we’d be getting wet before moving towards the entrance to the cave. At the lead, I wasn’t quite sure what to expect. I’d been told I’d need to swim across the cave mouth, but was skeptical. I’m 6’4″ – over a foot taller than most of the Mayans. It couldn’t be that deep, could it?
The 78 degree water prickled up my legs. Cold enough for a quick intake of breath, but not quite cold enough to be truly unpleasant. The water was mineral rich, and as a result a murky green. I slowly made my way forward as the bottom gave out beneath me. I quickly found myself swimming, camera in hand, across a portal into another world.
Once across, I crawled my way up onto a flat area, before stepping aside to watch as the rest of the group followed in my footsteps. Once we’d all gathered, it was once again time to pause for a brief history of the 5+km deep cave. It is believed that the Mayans used the cave in some form or another for over 1,000 years before eventually abandoning it around 1000AD. After which it sat dormant and unexplored until the 1980s when early explorers re-discovered the ancient Mayan site.
Chomping at the bit, we quickly began to make our way into the cave, carefully – albeit usually quite clumsily – stumbling over rocks, tripping on submerged ledges, and relying heavily on hand holds. Every so often our guide would issue a word of warning. Step here, don’t touch that. Be careful, it gets deep, etc. – messages which we then transferred dutifully down the line to ensure everyone was kept in the loop.
The cave hasn’t been stabilized in any way, shape or form which makes for an, at times, delightfully perilous trip. The only light we had available came in one of two forms: The seldom used, hand-held spotlight our guide had and our smaller hard-hat based LED headlamps.
The going was slow, but stunning. We were almost always in water, though the depth of that water ranged widely. Most of the time it ran waist deep, though it regularly plunged far deeper, leaving me walking in chest/neck-deep water or carefully clinging to the side of the cave wall as I scooted along seeking slightly shallower ledges. Unfortunately, my digital camera was locked away in a waterproof bag, however I did shoot video (attached above) on my waterproof flip.
As we wound more than half a kilometer into the cave system we paused regularly to examine stunning rock formations. At times they consisted of odd circular holes carved into the ceiling, other times it was large crystalline sheets which caught, and reflected the glow of our headlamps sparkling like a thousand tiny stars. All the while the roof ranged from mere inches above my head to large cavernous expanses decorated by stalactites and beautiful, folded, begemmed – almost sheet like – rock pillars.
Eventually we reached a long, narrow cavern with a large, jagged, water worn rock. The rock rested next to a sheer, overhanging ledge which stood some 10-15 feet above water level. The distance between the rock and the ledge was some 2.5 feet up, and 1.5 feet out. Just manageable if you were careful, used your height and managed to swallow the sizable lump in your throat that inevitably formed.
One-by-one we made the climb, bridged the small gap, and then scaled another 15-20 feet up along a steep, but manageable rock wall, before settling into a small alcove at the top. There we were instructed to remove our shoes, and don our socks in preparation for the dry leg of the cave.
We set off once again, this time through a tiny, narrow crevice that left me bent nearly in two, as I hop-walked my way through, periodically bouncing my head or shoulder off the rock ceiling. Once up and out things opened up in a large open area. The ground was a mixture between slightly water warn rock, and much smoother/softer sandstone.
In the larger open areas the ground was a unique mixture of small depressions where water would normally pool and natural retainer walls which were often semi-circle in nature. The ground looked in many ways like it was dried and hardened mud sediment, left during mild flooding over hundreds of years. We quickly learned that the sandstone’s delicate nature was the reason we’d been asked to remove our shoes. Our guide also pointed to several small pieces of red tape laid out on the ground. He cautioned that those marked artifacts and pleaded with us to be careful.
As we carefully made our way from chamber to chamber – often through narrow/tight/difficult pathways that left me feeling very grateful I wasn’t 6’6″ or 50 pounds heavier – we passed a plethora of old Mayan artifacts before eventually arriving at the first skeletal remains. Each step we took required total attention. Constantly on the look out for the red tape that market artifacts, we quickly realized that the tape only marked major artifacts. This forced us to vigilantly navigate between smaller pieces of pottery. All the while, we carefully avoided stepping in depressions, walking instead along the ridges left between small areas where water had pooled in years past. These were raised and tended to be more durable than the depressions which also potentially contained submerged/undiscovered pottery or skeletal remains encased in the soft sediment.
As we paused our guide told us a bit about the skull that rested, badly battered but largely intact at our feet. He shared the individual’s approximate age, sex, and what little had been discovered about the person’s life and social status. The chamber stretched out to either side, with a largely smooth floor, before slipping up into beautiful stalactites that decorated the cavern’s walls. The stalactites themselves looked like melted wax, leaving me to ponder the incredible beauty of the place. I can only image the mystical ambiance the cavern would have held in the dim, wavering light of a hand held torch or small fire. It’s easy to see how the ancient Mayans – who had somehow navigated nearly a kilometer into the cave, relying only on torches and gusto – would have envisioned the place as a magical portal into the underworld and afterlife.
With stories of Mayan nobles and religious leaders, heavily reliant on hallucinogenic drugs, celebrating bloody rituals racing through our minds we continued to wind further into the cave system. Past small depressions which held skeletal remains. Small platforms which supported old pottery. Turtle shells, various other artifacts and incredible stalactites. Eventually we paused in the main gallery to snap a few photos and enjoy the sheer scope of the cavern we were in. There our guide explained that every single piece of pottery found in the cave had been damaged by the Mayans. Apparently, after each use they Mayans would leave the pottery as a gift for the dead, punching a hole, or damaging it in some way to free the item’s spirit.
From there it was up, through another series of tight, jagged passages that left us muttering soft curses as we carefully picked our way over, through, between and under sharp rocks and small broken stalactites. Eventually we came to a near dead-end: A 10-15 foot set of large boulders. The boulders had an old aluminum roof latter set up against them, and stabilized with a small rope at the top. Its wobbly, frail looking nature, especially set in the dimly lit light of the cave definitely added to the sense of adventure.
We paused briefly, listening all the while to our guide as he told us what to expect: The Crystal Maiden. A fully intact female skeleton, left as she’d died over a thousand years previous. Near her feet in a small depression, easily overlooked was a second, small/collapsed skeleton. Unlike the maiden who appeared laid out, the 2nd skeleton was in a position that left us all wondering if it hadn’t died with its hands and legs bound. Sacrifice? Honored burial for respected elders? Ritual self-sacrifice? It’s hard to know.
Eyes glinting in the harsh light cast by our head lamps we paused and reflected before slowly making our way back to the metal latter. It looked every bit as intimidating as I expected it to…with a resigned sigh, I swung my body weight out over empty nothingness, slowly stabilizing myself against the rocks, before slowly making my way towards the ground, foot by foot, wobbly rung by wobbly rung.
From there it was back through the winding warren of small tunnels and large chambers to the ledge where we’d left our shoes. Smiles on our faces and small goose bumps on our arms we donned our shoes and made the difficult descent back over the small gap, down the large rock formation and into the water. Hours had passed since we’d entered the cave and though we didn’t know it yet, the sun had already slid below the horizon.
Bats began to migrate over our heads, typically staying well clear of us. From time to time, however, we’d find ourselves started by a gray blur, as it spend past our heads often narrowly missing us and leaving us to start at the quick wash of moving air that tugged at our hair.
The water itself held its own mysteries. As the last three tours in the cave, things were stone quiet. The air was still, and the animal life was slowly returning to reclaim its territory. Before long we spotted small catfish, crayfish and even several fist sized freshwater crabs. An entertaining addition to our group as we waded, swam, and walked back down through the flooded hallways, past ancient stalactites and stalagmites towards the entrance.
Eventually, wet, and slightly cold we reached the mouth of the cave…pausing briefly to make sure we hadn’t lost anyone, our guide pointed to two glowing points along the sheer walls of the cave near the entrance. The first thing to catch our attention was the stunningly beautiful reflection of eyes – star-like in nature. Then, as our eyes adjusted, the outlines of massive spiders suddenly sprang into focus.
Eager and slightly anxious, I made my way once more into the deep pool at the mouth of the cave. This time, careful to stay near the center of the chamber – hoping to stay as far away from the spiders as humanly possible.
Drenched, but thrilled I made my way back over the submerged rocks, dinging my shins every now and then, before scrambling out onto the moss slicked stones that marked the mouth of the cave. There we spotted another large, freshwater crab, before carefully picking our way up the muddy embankment and back onto the main path.
It was dark. Long past sunset, with a nearly full moon slowly climbing towards apex. It was stunning. The sky and moon brilliantly outlined the jungle canopy as it stretched over our heads, allowing slight moonlight to filter down to the jungle floor. After a quick pause we set off, back to the parking lot and our cars. We had a 40 minute walk ahead of us, through the dark, in the middle of nowhere, down a small dirt path and across three large rivers. THIS was the adventure i’d signed up for.
A glowing smile on my face, I began back towards the parking lot, pausing from time to time to let out a sign of amazement. I mentioned previously that the spider’s eyes at the cave mouth had been impressive. As it turns out, the jungle to either side of the path itself was home to thousands of spiders. All of varying sizes, but sharing the same brilliantly reflective eyes. As the light struck the path, I could not help but feel as though I was on a path through space, with stars to either side stretching out into space.
Careful not to stray off the path we wandered along for some 20 minutes before suddenly stopping dead in our tracks. Sitting smack dab in the middle of the path was a giant toad. No doubt feasting on the veritable spider smorgasbord. It stared at us briefly before lazily launching itself to the side of the path, and then off into the thick underbrush beyond.
About half way back to the parking lot my headlamp began to blink. My battery was dieing. Luckily, the moon was bright, I still had some battery left, and the other two members of the group still had battery power.
Nervously chuckling and wondering what other animal life was roaming the path, we set back to our trek, before eventually finding our way back to the parking lot where we donned warm clothes, piled into one of the guides’ trucks and set off for San Ignacio.
The trip, which had started out in what looked to be miserable disappointment ended up being one of my favorite experiences in Belize.
If you ever find yourself in Belize, make sure you track down a guide and explore Actun Tunichil Muknal – but hurry! People were not kidding when they said this site can’t last. There’s simply too much exposure to the artifacts and remains. The site needs something more than red electrical tape marking artifacts if there’s to be any hope of persevering it. Add to that the rugged and dangerous nature of the tour and there’s no doubt in my mind that the government will end up shutting it down in the next couple of years.